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Supreme Court of India Rules Privacy is a Fundamental Right

India's Supreme Court has ruled that privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution. In a unanimous ruling, the Court explained the "right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution." The Court also recognized that "Informational privacy is a facet of the right to privacy" and modern privacy risks are caused by both the public and private sector. The ruling may impact significant cases pending in India, including a challenge to Aadhaar, India's massive biometric identification system, and WhatsApp's privacy policy change. In 2009 NGOs and privacy experts set out the Madrid Privacy Declaration, which affirmed privacy as a fundamental human right. In 2010, EPIC urged the US Supreme Court to recognize the right of "informational privacy." EPIC explained that the Whalen decision and a famous German census case, "influenced international privacy jurisprudence, resulting in the widespread recognition of the right to informational privacy." EPIC's report Privacy and Human Rights provides an overview of privacy frameworks around the world.

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