EPIC logo

                            E P I C  A l e r t
Volume 14.13                                              June 26, 2007

                             Published by the
                Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)
                             Washington, D.C.

Table of Contents
[1] Senate Subpoenas Domestic Surveillance Documents
[2] EPIC Urges Limitations on Social Security Number Use
[3] EPIC Testifies on Caller ID Spoofing
[4] FBI Guidelines Made Public
[5] Court Finds Email Private, Enjoys Fourth Amendment Protection
[6] News in Brief
[7] EPIC Bookstore: "Privacy and Technologies of Identity"
[8] Upcoming Conferences and Events

[1] Senate Subpoenas Domestic Surveillance Documents

On June 21, the Senate Judiciary Committee voted to subpoena Justice
Department documents regarding the NSA's warrantless surveillance
program, including any legal opinions the Bush administration has
received concerning the surveillance program. Senate Judiciary Chairman
Patrick Leahy issued a statement following the vote in which he said,
“Why has this Administration been so steadfast in its refusal? Deputy
Attorney General Comey's account suggests that some of these documents
would reveal an Administration perfectly willing to ignore the law. Is
that what they are hiding?”

The authorization comes after the Committee's ninth formal document
request in 18 months went unfulfilled by the Justice Department. On May
21, Chairman Leahy and Ranking Member Arlen Specter wrote to Attorney
General Alberto Gonzales to demand that he provide documents containing
analysis or opinions regarding the legal basis for the surveillance
program. In their letter, the senators stated that Gonzales has
“rebuffed all requests for documents and your answers to our questions
have been wholly inadequate and, at times, misleading.”

The letter came a week after the testimony of former Deputy Attorney
General James Comey before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Comey
testified that he had informed the White House that the Justice
Department found no legal basis in the ongoing surveillance program, and
that the program was certified over the objections of the Justice

Following Comey's testimony, EPIC, the American Civil Liberties Union
and the National Security Archive urged a federal district court to
compel the Justice Department to disclose documents about the NSA
surveillance program. EPIC had previously filed FOIA requests with the
NSA and the Justice Department just hours after the New York Times first
reported on the warrantless surveillance program in December 2005. When
the agencies failed to comply with the FOIA deadline of 20 working days,
EPIC filed a lawsuit against the Justice Department to compel
disclosure. The case was consolidated with lawsuits initiated by
American Civil Liberties Union and the National Security Archive. In
March 2006, U.S. District judge Kennedy granted a Justice Department
request for an extension of the disclosure deadline.

Text of subpoena authorization and statement of Sen. Leahy:


Letter from Sen. Patrick Leahy and Sen. Arlen Specter to Attorney
General Alberto Gonzales:


EPIC's Spotlight on Surveillance "Legality of NSA's Secret Eavesdropping
Program Is Suspect and Cost is Unknown":


EPIC's page on Domestic Surveillance:


EPIC's FOIA work on the NSA's warrantless surveillance program:


EPIC's page on FISA:


[2] EPIC Urges Limitations on Social Security Number Use

On June 21, Marc Rotenberg, Executive Director of EPIC, testified before
the House Ways and Means Committee's Subcommittee on Social Security. He
urged Congress to adopt legislation to address the misuse of the Social
Security Number (SSN) and the growing problem of identity theft. Citing
a recent report from the Federal Trade Commission that finds that
identity is the number one concern of American consumers, EPIC called
for "strong and effective legislation that will limit the use of the
SSN," and context-dependent identifiers "that will encourage the
development of more robust systems for identification that safeguard
privacy and security." EPIC also criticized the President's Identity
Theft Task Force for failing to make more aggressive recommendations
regarding theft of Social Security Numbers.

The connection between identity theft and Social Security Numbers is not
new. SSNs represent the virtual keys to an individual's identity and are
improperly used as both an identifier and an authenticator. The
Subcommittee on Social Security has held a total of sixteen hearings on
the issue in the last seven years. During that time, despite the fact
that “[i]dentity theft is one of the fastest-growing crimes in the
United States” and “the FTC receives between fifteen and twenty-thousand
contacts each week from those who have been victimized by” or are
concerned about identity thieves, little has been done legislatively to
address this problem. Congressman Michael R. McNulty, chairman of the
subcommittee, however, indicated in his opening statement that he is
“committed to moving forward with legislation aimed at making it more
difficult for thieves and other wrongdoers to obtain a Social Security
Number and use it to commit identity theft or other crimes.”

The Social Security Number Protection Act of 2007, H.R. 948, been
reported out of the Committee on Energy and Commerce to the House and is
currently being examined by the Subcommittee on Social Security. The
purpose of H.R. 948 is to prohibit the display and purchase of Social
Security numbers in interstate commerce. Although EPIC generally favors
the bill, it believes it can be strengthened in several key areas.

In his testimony, Mr. Rotenberg outlined the elements that EPIC
considers essential to any piece of legislation addressing SSNs and
identity theft. First, Mr. Rotenberg highlighted the need to avoid
preempting state law in order to allow for innovation by state
governments in this field. Second, Mr. Rotenberg emphasized the need for
clear legislative guidance to the body that is delegated rulemaking
authority. EPIC finds inadequate the provisions in H.R. 948 that grant
the FTC broad discretion in creating exceptions to the legislation.
Finally, Mr. Rotenberg underscored the importance of creating a private
right of action in order to ensure vigorous enforcement of the law.

EPIC's Testimony before the House Subcommittee on Social Security on
Protecting the Privacy of the Social Security Number from Identity Theft
(June 21, 2007) (pdf):


EPIC's page on Social Security Numbers:


Congressman McNulty's opening statement (June 21, 2007):


FTC's consumer fraud and identity theft complaint data (pdf):


Presidential Task Force's strategic plan on combating identity theft
(April, 2007) (pdf):


[3] EPIC Testifies on Caller ID Spoofing

Last week, EPIC staff counsel Allison Knight testified before the Senate
Commerce Committee on caller ID spoofing and the Truth In Caller ID Act
of 2007, S.704. Caller ID spoofing occurs when a caller conceals his or
her phone number and causes another number to appear on the call
recipient's caller identification system. EPIC previously testified on a
bill of the same name that recently passed the House.

The Senate bill as currently drafted does not distinguish between
appropriate and inappropriate uses of caller ID spoofing, Knight stated.
EPIC recommended that any ban on caller ID spoofing include an intent
requirement, so that spoofing is only prohibited where a person "intends
to defraud or cause harm." This language was included in the House bill,
H.R. 251.

EPIC noted that spoofing caller ID numbers can create a real risk to
individuals who might be defrauded or harmed by illegitimate uses of
this technology.  However, there are also several legitimate uses of
spoofing that allow callers to limit the disclosure of their phone
numbers in order to protect their privacy and in some cases their
safety.  This includes domestic violence survivors who are trying to
reach family members and do not want their locations revealed. EPIC also
pointed out that many individuals have legitimate reasons to report a
different number than the one presented on caller ID.  For example, a
person may wish to keep her direct line private when making calls from
within an organization.

An intent requirement would protect legitimate uses of the technology
while prohibiting uses where it is clear a person who does not provide
accurate identifying information intends to defraud or cause harm.
Further, EPIC opposed an exemption in the Bill provided to law
enforcement, as an intent requirement would adequately protect
legitimate law enforcement activities.

EPIC called for the Federal Communications Commission to investigate the
President's domestic surveillance program, and asked Members to support
EPIC's recommendation that the Commission undertak an investigation
of the possibly improper disclosure of telephone toll records by the
telephone companies that are subject to the privacy obligations
contained in the Communications Act.

EPIC's Testimony before the Senate Commerce Committee on the Truth in
Caller ID Act of 2007, S.704 (pdf):


The Truth in Caller ID Act of 2007, S.704:


EPIC's page on Domestic Surveillance:


[4] FBI Guidelines Made Public

On June 13, the FBI released its updated guidelines for field agents in
the use of National Security Letters (NSLs). The revised guidelines
summarize and compile existing and new FBI NSL policies. The FBI created
the revised guidelines after there was extensive documentation of abuses
in an Office of the Inspector General report and a FBI internal audit.
Both reports found that the FBI violated its own internal policies, the
requirements of the NSL statute and Attorney General guidelines.

NSLs are an extraordinary search procedure by which the FBI obtains
customer and consumer transactional information from communications
providers, financial institutions and consumer credit agencies without
obtaining a warrant or any court authorization. NSLs are issued to third
parties during terrorism, espionage, and classified information leak
investigations, and are typically accompanied by a non-disclosure
certification, also known as a “gag order.” This gag order prohibits the
recipient from disclosing to anyone, except his or her lawyer, that an
NSL letter was issued.

The PATRIOT Act broadened the FBI's authority to use NSLs by lowering
the threshold standard for issuing them and by expanding the number of
FBI officials who could sign them. These changes led to an increase in
the numbers of NSLs issued, from 8,500 in 2000 to 39,000 in 2003, 56,000
in 2004 and 47,000 in 2005. EPIC has written to Congress asking that the
PATRIOT act provision expanding the NSL power be repealed.

The FBI's updated guidelines prohibit the use of exigent letters, and
require that FBI officials make a “case by case determination” for the
issuance of a gag order, as opposed to the prevailing practice of
issuing gag orders as a matter of course. In another change of policy,
the guidelines direct their divisions to retain copies of signed NSLs.
However, the guidelines continue the practice of permitting field
offices to issue NSLs, rather than requiring headquarters approval. The
guidelines also allow for the retroactive issuance of an NSL to cover
any “overproduction” of information given to the FBI. The guidelines do
not provide for judicial review of NSLs, and continue to allow their
issuance under the lowered thresholds of the Patriot Act.

FBI Comprehensive Guidance on National Security Letters (pdf):


EPIC's National Security Letters page:


Office of the Inspector General: A Review of the Federal Bureau of
Investigation's Use of National Security Letters (pdf):


EPIC's letter to Congress on National Security Letters (pdf):


[5] Court Finds Email Private, Enjoys Fourth Amendment Protection

On June 16, the Sixth Circuit court of appeals ruled that portions of
the Stored Communications Act violate the Fourth Amendment protection
from unreasonable searches and seizures.  In Warshak v. United States,
the court found that an individual has a reasonable expectation of
privacy in the emails one has stored at an ISP. Therefore, the court
held, when the government seeks to obtain the contents of emails stored
at an ISP, it must either use a warrant or notify the owner of the email
account that a subpoena has been issued.

Steven Warshak was under investigation for violating several federal
laws. During this investigation the government sent subpoenas to his
ISPs requesting his subscriber account information as well as the
contents of some of his emails. The orders were issued under seal, but
Warshak was later notified of their existence when they were unsealed.
Warshak then sued the government asking for an order declaring this
access unconstitutional and preventing the government from further
accessing his emails. A federal judge in Ohio granted Warshak a
temporary injunction barring the government from accessing emails of
individuals in its coverage without a warrant or notification to that

The Stored Communications Act (18 U.S.C. §§ 2701 - 2712) permits the
government to access emails stored at an ISP under certain conditions
with the issuance of a subpoena. (18 U.S.C. § 2703(b)). The act also
permits the government to delay notification of this access under
certain conditions, such as if it would lead to flight from prosecution,
or destruction of evidence. (18 U.S.C. § 2705). The government argued
that this provision is constitutional because one does not have an
expectation of privacy in what one has turned over to a third party, in
this case the ISP.  The court ruled otherwise, likening emails to
telephone calls.  One does not expect privacy in the numbers they dial,
but does expect that the content of their calls is private, even if the
telephone company could be listening.

Further, the court found that Warshak's suit is not limited to his
emails. The court decided that Warshak's request is properly a "facial
challenge" that challenges the text of a law on its face, under all
circumstances. Thus the effect of the ruling is to prevent the
government from access to the emails of all individuals in southern
Ohio, the site of the original suit, absent a warrant or a subpoena with
notification to the subject.

Sixth Circuit Decision in Warshak v. United States (pdf):


EPIC's page on Wiretapping:


[6] News in Brief

Comprehensive Privacy Approach Needed for Health IT

On June 19, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) released a report
recommending that The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
implement a comprehensive privacy initiative to ensure the protection of
electronically stored personal health data.  The report was based on
Executive Order 13335, in which President Bush called upon HHS to
develop and implement a national interoperable health information
network.  The GAO report recognized that HHS officials have already
undertaken some initiatives to address privacy principles; however, it
determined that the agency's work is still in the preliminary stages,
and not yet integrated.

The report recommended that HHS adopt milestones to ensure that “key
privacy principles” and possible data exchange challenges are fully and
adequately addressed.  The report also identified four key challenges to
overcome: 1) assurance of proper minimum disclosures; 2) implementation
of sufficient security measures; 3) resolution of varying state privacy
laws and policies; and 4) the right of individuals to access and amend
their health data.  EPIC supports the GAO's findings.  In particular,
EPIC has continually advocated for adoption of stringent privacy
safeguards for electronic health records, as well as the right of
individuals to obtain and amend their personal medical records.

GAO Report, “Health Information Technology: Efforts Continue but
Comprehensive Privacy Approach Needed for National Strategy” (pdf):


EPIC's page on Medical Privacy:


Patient Privacy Rights:


Court Upholds Rights For Car Passengers

On June 18, the United States Supreme Court ruled that vehicle
passengers may challenge the legality of police stops.  The decision
stems from the 2001 conviction of Bruce Brendlin, a passenger arrested
on drug charges after an illegal police stop.  Brendlin moved to have
the evidence against him suppressed, arguing that “the traffic stop was
an unlawful seizure of his person.” The Attorney General of California
defended Brendlin's conviction, arguing that the Fourth Amendment only
protects drivers, and not passengers, against unreasonable search and
seizure.  The Supreme Court voted unanimously to vacate Brendlin's
conviction.  In his opinion for the Court, Justice Souter wrote that
traffic stops curtailed the travel of vehicle passengers as well as
drivers, and that “no passenger would feel free to leave” after police
detained the vehicle they were traveling in.  The Court also noted that
all nine Federal Courts of Appeals and 47 states allowed passengers to
challenge the legality of vehicle stops on Fourth Amendment grounds.

Brendlin v. California, US Supreme Court, June 18, 2007 (pdf):


DHS Releases New Border Crossing Rules

The U.S. government has released proposed border crossing rules under
the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI). This is a program,
developed by the departments of Homeland Security and State, that
requires everyone entering the United States through land or sea ports
to present a passport or other documents to prove identity and
citizenship. The proposed rules require most U.S. citizens to show
either a U.S. passport, U.S. passport card, trusted traveler card (under
government programs such as NEXUS, FAST, or SENTRI), Merchant Mariner
Document, or U.S. Military identification card. The flawed program has
been criticized by many, and its implementation has been filled with
problems. Last week, DHS had to delay, by about six months a WHTI
requirement that U.S. citizens present a passport, because of massive
backlogs in passport processing. Earlier this month, the U.S. House
voted to delay the proposed rules until June 2009, and the U.S. Senate
is considering a similar measure. EPIC has submitted detailed comments
explaining the significant security and privacy problems in the WHTI
program. Comments on the proposed rules are due August 27.

EPIC Comments on the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative Proposal


DHS Press Release on WHTI Notice of Proposed Rulemaking:


Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on WHTI (pdf):


New Recommendations on Cross-Border Privacy Law Enforcement

On June 12, the OECD adopted a new Recommendation setting forth a
framework for cooperation in the enforcement of privacy laws. The
framework reflects a commitment by governments to improve their domestic
frameworks for privacy law enforcement to better enable cooperation
between domestic and foreign authorities, as well as to provide mutual
assistance to one another in the enforcement of privacy laws.

Specific recommendations include the development of international
enforcement cooperation mechanisms and mutual assistance tools such as
notification, complaint referral, investigative assistance and
information sharing, subject to appropriate safeguards. The
recommendations also call for stakeholder discussion and collaboration
and instruct the relevant OECD committee to monitor and report on the
implementation of these measures.

OECD Cross-Border Privacy Law Enforcement page:


OECD Recommendation on Cross-Border Privacy Law Enforcement (pdf):


CIA Report on Wiretapping

The CIA will declassify 693 pages detailing the agency's illegal
activities from the 1950s to the 1970s, director General Michael Hayden
announced last week.  The so-called "family jewels" detail wiretaps and
surveillance of journalists, attempted break-ins, a two-year confinement
of a Russian defector and the participation on an "unwitting basis" of
civilians in behavioral modification studies.   The documents will be
publicly released this week.

In anticipation of the release of these documents, the National Security
Archive at George Washington University separately posted a six-page
summary memorandum it obtained in 2000 describing the CIA's questionable
activities from the 1950s-1970s.

The National Security Archive at George Washington University:


EPIC's Resources on Domestic Surveillance:


EPIC's Resources on Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA):


EU Expands Search Engine Investigation

On June 10, in response to a May 16 letter from the Article 29 Working
Party announcing an investigation of the proposed merger between Google
and DoubleClick, Google announced that it would cut its data retention
times from 24 to 18 months. This response came only two months after
Nicole Wong, Google's deputy general counsel, asserted that, in its
April 20 complaint to the FTC, "EPIC utterly fails to identify any
practice that does not comply with accepted privacy standards." On June 21, the Article 29 Working Party acknowledged Google's response to their May 16 letter and announced that it will expand its investigation to cover the practices of other search engines. The Working Party indicated that it will scrutinize the activities of search engines “from a data protection point of view, because this issue affects an ever growing number of users.” EPIC's FTC Google Complaint page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/ftc/google/ The Article 29 Working Party's letter to Google (May 16, 2007) (pdf): http://www.epic.org/privacy/ftc/google/art29_0507.pdf Google's response to the May 16 letter (June 10, 2007) (pdf): http://www.epic.org/privacy/ftc/google/gres_a29_061007.pdf The Article 29 Working Party's press release concerning its 61st meeting (June 21, 2007) (pdf): http://www.epic.org/redirect/article290607.html ======================================================================== [7] EPIC Bookstore: "Understanding Surveillance Technologies" ======================================================================== Privacy and Technologies of Identity A Cross-Disciplinary Conversation by Katherine J. Strandburg and Daniela Stan Raicu (Springer, 2006) http://www.powells.com/partner/24075/biblio/9780387260501 “Privacy and Technologies of Identity: A Cross-Disciplinary Conversation provides an overview of ways in which technological changes raise privacy concerns. It then addresses four major areas of technology: RFID and location tracking technology; biometric technology, data mining; and issues with anonymity and authentication of identity. Many of the chapters are written with the non-specialist in mind, seeking to educate a diverse audience on the "basics" of the technology and the law and to point out the promise and perils of each technology for privacy. The material in this book provides an interface between legal and policy approaches to privacy and technologies that either threaten or enhance privacy. This book grew out of the Fall 2004 CIPLIT(r) Symposium on Privacy and Identity: The Promise and Perils of a Technological Age, co-sponsored by DePaul University's College of Law and School of Computer Science, Telecommunications and Information Systems. The Symposium brought together leading researchers in advanced technology and leading thinkers from the law and policy arenas, many of whom have contributed chapters to the book. Like the Symposium, the book seeks to contribute to a conversation among technologists, lawyers, and policymakers about how best to handle the challenges to privacy that arise from recent technological advances." ================================ EPIC Publications: "Information Privacy Law: Cases and Materials, Second Edition" Daniel J. Solove, Marc Rotenberg, and Paul Schwartz. (Aspen 2005). Price: $98. http://www.epic.org/redirect/aspen_ipl_casebook.html This clear, comprehensive introduction to the field of information privacy law allows instructors to enliven their teaching of fundamental concepts by addressing both enduring and emerging controversies. The Second Edition addresses numerous rapidly developing areas of privacy law, including: identity theft, government data mining and electronic surveillance law, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, intelligence sharing, RFID tags, GPS, spyware, web bugs, and more. Information Privacy Law, Second Edition, builds a cohesive foundation for an exciting course in this rapidly evolving area of law. ================================ "Privacy & Human Rights 2005: An International Survey of Privacy Laws and Developments" (EPIC 2006). Price: $60. http://www.epic.org/bookstore/phr2005/phr2005.html This annual report by EPIC and Privacy International provides an overview of key privacy topics and reviews the state of privacy in over 70 countries around the world. The report outlines legal protections, new challenges, and important issues and events relating to privacy. Privacy & Human Rights 2005 is the most comprehensive report on privacy and data protection ever published. ================================ "FOIA 2004: Litigation Under the Federal Open Government Laws," Harry Hammitt, David Sobel and Tiffany Stedman, editors (EPIC 2004). Price: $40. http://www.epic.org/bookstore/foia2004 This is the standard reference work covering all aspects of the Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act, the Government in the Sunshine Act, and the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The 22nd edition fully updates the manual that lawyers, journalists and researchers have relied on for more than 25 years. For those who litigate open government cases (or need to learn how to litigate them), this is an essential reference manual. ================================ "The Public Voice WSIS Sourcebook: Perspectives on the World Summit on the Information Society" (EPIC 2004). Price: $40. http://www.epic.org/bookstore/pvsourcebook This resource promotes a dialogue on the issues, the outcomes, and the process of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). This reference guide provides the official UN documents, regional and issue-oriented perspectives, and recommendations and proposals for future action, as well as a useful list of resources and contacts for individuals and organizations that wish to become more involved in the WSIS process. ================================ "The Privacy Law Sourcebook 2004: United States Law, International Law, and Recent Developments," Marc Rotenberg, editor (EPIC 2005). Price: $40. http://www.epic.org/bookstore/pls2004/ The Privacy Law Sourcebook, which has been called the "Physician's Desk Reference" of the privacy world, is the leading resource for students, attorneys, researchers, and journalists interested in pursuing privacy law in the United States and around the world. It includes the full texts of major privacy laws and directives such as the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Privacy Act, and the OECD Privacy Guidelines, as well as an up-to-date section on recent developments. New materials include the APEC Privacy Framework, the Video Voyeurism Prevention Act, and the CAN-SPAM Act. ================================ "Filters and Freedom 2.0: Free Speech Perspectives on Internet Content Controls" (EPIC 2001). Price: $20. http://www.epic.org/bookstore/filters2.0 A collection of essays, studies, and critiques of Internet content filtering. These papers are instrumental in explaining why filtering threatens free expression. ================================ EPIC publications and other books on privacy, open government, free expression, crypto and governance can be ordered at: EPIC Bookstore http://www.epic.org/bookstore "EPIC Bookshelf" at Powell's Books http://www.powells.com/features/epic/epic.html ================================ EPIC also publishes EPIC FOIA Notes, which provides brief summaries of interesting documents obtained from government agencies under the Freedom of Information Act. Subscribe to EPIC FOIA Notes at: https://mailman.epic.org/cgi-bin/control/foia_notes ======================================================================== [8] Upcoming Conferences and Events ======================================================================== 2007 ALA Annual Conference. Washington Convention Center. June 23-26, 2007. Washington, DC. For more information: http://www.ala.org/ala/eventsandconferencesb/annual/2007a/home.htm National Institute on Computing and the Law: From Steps to Strides into the New Age. June 25-26, 2007. San Francisco, CA. For more information: http://www.abanet.org/cle/programs/n07ctl1.html Federal Trade Commission: Spam Summit - The Next Generation of Threats and Solutions. July 11-12, 2007. Washington DC. For more information: http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/workshops/spamsummit/index.shtml Harvard University Privacy Symposium. August 21-24, 2007. Cambridge, MA. For more information http://www.privacysummersymposium.com 7th Annual Future of Music Policy Summit. September 17-18, 2007. Washington, DC. For more information http://www.futureofmusic.org/events/summit07/ Civil Society Privacy Conference: Privacy Rights in a World Under Surveillance. September 25, 2007. Montreal, Canada. For more information: http://www.thepublicvoice.org/events/montreal07/default.html 29th International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners. September 25-28, 2007. Montreal, Canada. For more information: http://www.privacyconference2007.gc.ca/Terra_Incognita_home_E.html OECD and Industry Canada: Shaping Policies for Creativity, Confidence and Convergence in the Digital World. October 3, 2007. Ottawa, Canada. For more information: http://www.oecd.org/futureinternet/participativeweb University of Ottawa Faculty of Law: The Revealed "I". October 25-27, 2007. Ottawa, Canada. For more information: http://www.idtrail.org/content/section/11/95/ Future of the Internet Economy - OECD Ministerial Meeting. June 14-18, 2008. Seoul, Korea. For more information: http://www.oecd.org/document/19/0,2340,en_2649_37441_38051667 _1_1_1_37441,00.html ====================================================================== Subscription Information ====================================================================== Subscribe/unsubscribe via web interface: https://mailman.epic.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/epic_news Back issues are available at: http://www.epic.org/alert The EPIC Alert displays best in a fixed-width font, such as Courier. ======================================================================== Privacy Policy ======================================================================== The EPIC Alert mailing list is used only to mail the EPIC Alert and to send notices about EPIC activities. We do not sell, rent or share our mailing list. We also intend to challenge any subpoena or other legal process seeking access to our mailing list. We do not enhance (link to other databases) our mailing list or require your actual name. In the event you wish to subscribe or unsubscribe your e-mail address from this list, please follow the above instructions under "subscription information." ======================================================================== About EPIC ======================================================================== The Electronic Privacy Information Center is a public interest research center in Washington, DC. It was established in 1994 to focus public attention on emerging privacy issues such as the Clipper Chip, the Digital Telephony proposal, national ID cards, medical record privacy, and the collection and sale of personal information. EPIC publishes the EPIC Alert, pursues Freedom of Information Act litigation, and conducts policy research. For more information, see http://www.epic.org or write EPIC, 1718 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20009. +1 202 483 1140 (tel), +1 202 483 1248 (fax). If you'd like to support the work of the Electronic Privacy Information Center, contributions are welcome and fully tax-deductible. Checks should be made out to "EPIC" and sent to 1718 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20009. Or you can contribute online at: http://www.epic.org/donate Your contributions will help support Freedom of Information Act and First Amendment litigation, strong and effective advocacy for the right of privacy and efforts to oppose government regulation of encryption and expanding wiretapping powers. Thank you for your support. ------------------------- END EPIC Alert 14.12 ------------------------- .